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In biology, a '''mutation''' is a permanent alteration of the base sequence|nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements. Mutations result from damage to DNA which is not DNA repair|repaired, errors in the process of DNA replication|replication, or from the Insertion (genetics)|insertion or Deletion (genetics)|deletion of segments of DNA by mobile genetic elements. Mutations may or may not produce discernible changes in the observable characteristics (phenotype) of an organism. Mutations play a part in both normal and abnormal biological processes including: evolution, cancer, and the development of the immune system, including junctional diversity. Mutation can result in many different types of change in sequences....
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